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HDFS块检查命令Fsck机理的相关分析

2016-03-29

前言 在HDFS中,所有的文件都是以block块的概念而存在的,那么在这样海量的文件数据的情况下,难免会发生一些文件块损坏的现象,那么有什么好的办法去发现呢 答案是使用HDFS的fsck相关的命令 这个命令独立于dfsad

前言


在HDFS中,所有的文件都是以block块的概念而存在的,那么在这样海量的文件数据的情况下,难免会发生一些文件块损坏的现象,那么有什么好的办法去发现呢.答案是使用HDFS的fsck相关的命令.这个命令独立于dfsadmin的命令,可能会让部分人不知道HDFS中还存在这样的命令,本文就来深度挖掘一下这个命令的特殊的用处和内在机理的实现.

Fsck命令


其实说到fsck命令本身,熟悉Linux操作系统的人,可能或多或少听到过或使用过这个命令.Fsck命令的全称为file system check,更加类似的是一种修复命令.当然,本文不会讲大量的关于操作系统的fsck怎么用,而是HDFS下的fsck的使用,在bin/hdfs fsck下还是有很多可选参数的.

Fsck参数使用


本人在测试集群中输入hdfs fsck命令,获取了帮助信息,在此信息中展示了最全的参数使用说明:

$ hdfs fsck
Usage: hdfs fsck  [-list-corruptfileblocks | [-move | -delete | -openforwrite] [-files [-blocks [-locations | -racks]]]]
      start checking from this path
    -move   move corrupted files to /lost+found
    -delete delete corrupted files
    -files  print out files being checked
    -openforwrite   print out files opened for write
    -includeSnapshots   include snapshot data if the given path indicates a snapshottable directory or there are snapshottable directories under it
    -list-corruptfileblocks print out list of missing blocks and files they belong to
    -blocks print out block report
    -locations  print out locations for every block
    -racks  print out network topology for data-node locations
    -storagepolicies    print out storage policy summary for the blocks

    -blockId    print out which file this blockId belongs to, locations (nodes, racks) of this block, and other diagnostics info (under replicated, corrupted or not, etc)

简单的总结一下,首先是必填参数和命令名:

bin/hdfs fsck 

然后是一堆的可选参数:

-move: 移动损坏的文件到/lost+found目录下 -delete: 删除损坏的文件 -files: 输出正在被检测的文件 -openforwrite: 输出检测中的正在被写的文件 -includeSnapshots: 检测的文件包括系统snapShot快照目录下的 -list-corruptfileblocks: 输出损坏的块及其所属的文件 -blocks: 输出block的详细报告 -locations: 输出block的位置信息 -racks: 输出block的网络拓扑结构信息 -storagepolicies: 输出block的存储策略信息 -blockId: 输出指定blockId所属块的状况,位置等信息

具体参数功能对应到相应的程序会在下文的分析中进行详细的阐述.

Fsck过程调用


Fsck过程的调用指的是从终端机器输入到最终fsck在HDFS内部被执行的整个过程.中间穿过的类的其实不多,本人做了一张简图:
这里写图片描述
上图的调用形式,可以说是三层调用的结构<喎"http://www.2cto.com/kf/ware/vc/" target="_blank" class="keylink">vc3Ryb25nPi5ERlNja77NysexqcK21NrX7s3isuO1xMDgLs7Sw8fU2cC0uebV+7nm1fvW0LzktcS5/bPMLjwvcD4NCsrkyOtmc2NrINaxvdO199PDtb21xL7Nyse0y8DgLkRGU2NrxNqyv7vht6LLzWh0dHDH68fztcS3vcq9LLj5vt2yzsr9ubnU7FVSTMfrx/O12Na3LLeiy821vc/C0ru49rSmwO221M/z1tAuIM/C0ru49rSmwO221M/zvs3Kx0ZzY2tTZXJ2bGV0LkZzY2tTZXJ2bGV01NrV4sDvz+C1sdPa0ru49rn9tsnV3yzC7cnPtffTw9Xm1f2y2df3wOBOYW1lbm9kZUZzY2suIE5hbWVub2RlRnNja9Ta1eLA77vhyKGz9sfrx/Oyzsr9LMi7uvPU2khERlPE2rK/1/bV5tX9tcRmc2NrvOyy4rLZ1/cuDQo8aDEgaWQ9"fsck原理分析">Fsck原理分析


Fsck原理分析将会展示更加细致的fsck过程调用.按照上小节的提到的3层调用,同样我们也分为3个层次的渐近性的分析.

DFSck请求构造


你可以把此类想象成DFSAdmin.首先进入命令输入处理入口方法:

public int run(final String[] args) throws IOException {
    if (args.length == 0) {
      printUsage(System.err);
      return -1;
    }

    try {
      return UserGroupInformation.getCurrentUser().doAs(
          new PrivilegedExceptionAction() {
            @Override
            public Integer run() throws Exception {
              return doWork(args);
            }
          });
    } catch (InterruptedException e) {
      throw new IOException(e);
    }
  }

在doWork方法中,马上就看到了对于参数的判别分类,同时开始构造不同的参数请求.

private int doWork(final String[] args) throws IOException {
    final StringBuilder url = new StringBuilder();

    url.append("/fsck?ugi=").append(ugi.getShortUserName());
    String dir = null;
    boolean doListCorruptFileBlocks = false;
    for (int idx = 0; idx < args.length; idx++) {
      if (args[idx].equals("-move")) { url.append("&move=1"); }
      else if (args[idx].equals("-delete")) { url.append("&delete=1"); }
      else if (args[idx].equals("-files")) { url.append("&files=1"); }
      else if (args[idx].equals("-openforwrite")) { url.append("&openforwrite=1"); }
      else if (args[idx].equals("-blocks")) { url.append("&blocks=1"); }
      else if (args[idx].equals("-locations")) { url.append("&locations=1"); }
      else if (args[idx].equals("-racks")) { url.append("&racks=1"); }
      else if (args[idx].equals("-storagepolicies")) { url.append("&storagepolicies=1"); }
      ...

不同类型的参数后面接的参数值也不一定相同,比如-blockId后面则会跟连续的blockId.

...
} else if (args[idx].equals("-blockId")) {
        StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder();
        idx++;
        while(idx < args.length && !args[idx].startsWith("-")){
          sb.append(args[idx]);
          sb.append(" ");
          idx++;
        }
        url.append("&blockId=").append(URLEncoder.encode(sb.toString(), "UTF-8"));
...        

请求url构造好之后,就会发起请求

URL path = new URL(url.toString());
    URLConnection connection;
    try {
      connection = connectionFactory.openConnection(path, isSpnegoEnabled);
    } catch (AuthenticationException e) {
      throw new IOException(e);
    }

然后获取响应回复,直接输出到终端上.

InputStream stream = connection.getInputStream();
    BufferedReader input = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(stream, "UTF-8"));
    String line = null;
    String lastLine = null;
    int errCode = -1;
    try {
      while ((line = input.readLine()) != null) {
        out.println(line);
        lastLine = line;
      }
    } finally {
      input.close();
    }

OK,DFSck最外层面的调用过就走通了.

FsckServlet请求处理

上个步骤中url请求会转到FsckServlet中处理,类似代理人的角色,然后马上调用NamenodeFsck进行处理

/** Handle fsck request */
  @Override
  public void doGet(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response
      ) throws IOException {
    @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
    final Map pmap = request.getParameterMap();
    ...

    final UserGroupInformation ugi = getUGI(request, conf);
    try {
      ugi.doAs(new PrivilegedExceptionAction() {
        @Override
        public Object run() throws Exception {
          NameNode nn = NameNodeHttpServer.getNameNodeFromContext(context);

          final FSNamesystem namesystem = nn.getNamesystem();
          final BlockManager bm = namesystem.getBlockManager();
          final int totalDatanodes = 
              namesystem.getNumberOfDatanodes(DatanodeReportType.LIVE); 
          new NamenodeFsck(conf, nn,
              bm.getDatanodeManager().getNetworkTopology(), pmap, out,
              totalDatanodes, remoteAddress).fsck();

          return null;
        }
      });
    } catch (InterruptedException e) {
      response.sendError(400, e.getMessage());
    }
  }

NamenodeFsck的fsck处理

上节中最后一个步骤最终调用的就是NamenodeFsck的fsck方法.在进入这个方法之前,先看一下,这个类的一些关键变量.

  private String lostFound = null;
  private boolean lfInited = false;
  private boolean lfInitedOk = false;
  private boolean showFiles = false;
  private boolean showOpenFiles = false;
  private boolean showBlocks = false;
  private boolean showLocations = false;
  private boolean showRacks = false;
  private boolean showStoragePolcies = false;
  private boolean showCorruptFileBlocks = false;

这些布尔类型的变量对应的就是控制fsck帮助信息所展示的各个参数.个人感觉fsck方法内部的处理顺序看起来有点乱,为了便于大家的理解,这里对指定参数进行指定分析的方式,就不转行对照的描述了.

-list-corruptfileblocks


第一个参数方法-list-corruptfileblocks,展示丢失/损坏的块.

        if (showCorruptFileBlocks) {
          listCorruptFileBlocks();
          return;
        }

然后调用到同名方法listCorruptFileBlocks.

  private void listCorruptFileBlocks() throws IOException {
    Collection corruptFiles = namenode.
      getNamesystem().listCorruptFileBlocks(path, currentCookie);
    int numCorruptFiles = corruptFiles.size();
    ...
    out.println("Cookie:\t" + currentCookie[0]);
    for (FSNamesystem.CorruptFileBlockInfo c : corruptFiles) {
      out.println(c.toString());
    }
    out.println("\n\nThe filesystem under path &#39;" + path + "&#39; has " + filler
        + " CORRUPT files");
    out.println();
  }

此方法最终会调用到FSNamesystem的listCorruptFileBlocks方法,注意这里还传入了一个特别的参数currentCookie.这个参数的作用可是非常的巧妙的.进入FSNamesystem的方法,首先初始化对象损坏文件块对象:

ArrayList corruptFiles = new ArrayList();

方法返回的对象也即是此对象.
然后进入关键的损坏文件的判断逻辑

    // Do a quick check if there are any corrupt files without taking the lock
    if (blockManager.getMissingBlocksCount() == 0) {
      if (cookieTab[0] == null) {
        cookieTab[0] = String.valueOf(getIntCookie(cookieTab[0]));
      }
      if (LOG.isDebugEnabled()) {
        LOG.debug("there are no corrupt file blocks.");
      }
      return corruptFiles;
    }

blockManager的getMissingBlocksCount方法取的就是损坏块队列的大小.

  public long getMissingBlocksCount() {
    // not locking
    return this.neededReplications.getCorruptBlockSize();
  }

如果此方法的Count返回值有值,就是大于0,则方法执行继续

      // 获取损坏块的block迭代器
      final Iterator blkIterator = blockManager.getCorruptReplicaBlockIterator();
      // 取出cookie值作为标记位,跳过标记下标之前的文件,代表已经浏览过
      int skip = getIntCookie(cookieTab[0]);
      for (int i = 0; i < skip && blkIterator.hasNext(); i++) {
        blkIterator.next();
      }

      while (blkIterator.hasNext()) {
        Block blk = blkIterator.next();
        final INode inode = (INode)blockManager.getBlockCollection(blk);
        //更新skip跳过值
        skip++;
        if (inode != null && blockManager.countNodes(blk).liveReplicas() == 0) {
          String src = FSDirectory.getFullPathName(inode);
          if (src.startsWith(path)){
            corruptFiles.add(new CorruptFileBlockInfo(src, blk));
            count++;
            if (count >= DEFAULT_MAX_CORRUPT_FILEBLOCKS_RETURNED)
              break;
          }
        }
      }
      //更新cookie标记值
      cookieTab[0] = String.valueOf(skip);

cookie的作用就是如上注释所说,获取到此返回损坏文件列表后,会在上一方法中将结果输出

for (FSNamesystem.CorruptFileBlockInfo c : corruptFiles) 
    {
      out.println(c.toString());
    }

fsck -path默认处理方法


fsck的默认处理方法指的就是fsck+path的方法,为什么紧接着讲这个方法呢,因为fsck的path方法处理也包括了扫描损坏块的方法,但是在逻辑上与-list-corruptfiles竟然还不一样,这一点本人在阅读的时候,也是感到比较吃惊的.首先大家传入的path会被传入到内部方法check中处理

        Result res = new Result(conf);

        check(path, file, res);

        out.println(res);
        out.println(" Number of data-nodes:\t\t" + totalDatanodes);
        out.println(" Number of racks:\t\t" + networktopology.getNumOfRacks());

然后会进行目录,文件的判断,如果是目录,则进行递归调用

    if (file.isDir()) {
      // 如果快照目录包含此路径,则递归快照目录下的path
      if (snapshottableDirs != null && snapshottableDirs.contains(path)) {
        String snapshotPath = (path.endsWith(Path.SEPARATOR) ? path : path
            + Path.SEPARATOR)
            + HdfsConstants.DOT_SNAPSHOT_DIR;
        HdfsFileStatus snapshotFileInfo = namenode.getRpcServer().getFileInfo(
            snapshotPath);
        check(snapshotPath, snapshotFileInfo, res);
      }
      ...
      do {
        assert lastReturnedName != null;
        thisListing = namenode.getRpcServer().getListing(
            path, lastReturnedName, false);
        if (thisListing == null) {
          return;
        }
        HdfsFileStatus[] files = thisListing.getPartialListing();
        //递归变量此path的子文件,如果此path是目录的话
        for (int i = 0; i < files.length; i++) {
          check(path, files[i], res);
        }
        lastReturnedName = thisListing.getLastName();
      } while (thisListing.hasMore());
      return;
    }

在接下来的分析检测文件时,会进行相应指标的统计值更新

isOpen = blocks.isUnderConstruction();
    if (isOpen && !showOpenFiles) {
      // We collect these stats about open files to report with default options
      res.totalOpenFilesSize += fileLen;
      res.totalOpenFilesBlocks += blocks.locatedBlockCount();
      res.totalOpenFiles++;
      return;
    }
    res.totalFiles++;
    res.totalSize += fileLen;
    res.totalBlocks += blocks.locatedBlockCount();

下面是关键的判断path下所属的block块中的损坏块的判断逻辑:

...
for (LocatedBlock lBlk : blocks.getLocatedBlocks()) {
      ExtendedBlock block = lBlk.getBlock();
      boolean isCorrupt = lBlk.isCorrupt();
      String blkName = block.toString();
...

这里直接利用了LocatedBlock内部的isCorrupt的方法,然后进行corrupt计数累加

      // Check if block is Corrupt
      if (isCorrupt) {
        corrupt++;
        res.corruptBlocks++;
        out.print("\n" + path + ": CORRUPT blockpool " + block.getBlockPoolId() + 
            " block " + block.getBlockName()+"\n");
      }

而且在这里,missing块的判断逻辑是独立于corrupt块的.

// 重新进行块副本数的统计
NumberReplicas numberReplicas =
          namenode.getNamesystem().getBlockManager().countNodes(block.getLocalBlock());
      // 获取存在的副本数
      int liveReplicas = numberReplicas.liveReplicas();
      // 如果当前副本数确实为0,则表明已经是missing块
      if (liveReplicas == 0) {
        report.append(" MISSING!");
        res.addMissing(block.toString(), block.getNumBytes());
        missing++;
        missize += block.getNumBytes();
      } else {

重新回顾以上check方法中的这2类块判断逻辑,第二个missing块的判断逻辑,我个人认为是没有问题的,但是第一个corrupt的判断我个人感觉可能有点问题,尽管说LocatedBlock提供了内部方法isCorrupt,但是我在查询isCorrupt的调用处时发现绝大多数情况下都是false参数默认传入的,而且在数据实时性和有效性上而言,这个方法是没有-list-corruptfiles参数来的快与准的(个人观点,可能理解不同).因为-list-corruptfiles直接是从FSNamesystem类中取的,一方面代表的已经是最新的损坏数据情况了.

fsck -delete/-move


这2个命令作用是找到损坏块之后,打算要做什么事情,就是下面2行代码所控制的:

...
} else {
        if (doMove) copyBlocksToLostFound(parent, file, blocks);
        if (doDelete) deleteCorruptedFile(path);
      }
...

LostFound指的是/lost+found目录,下,就是说-move参数会将损坏块文件,移至此目录下,而-delet则会调用直接删除的方法

  private void deleteCorruptedFile(String path) {
    try {
      namenode.getRpcServer().delete(path, true);
      LOG.info("Fsck: deleted corrupt file " + path);
    } catch (Exception e) {
      LOG.error("Fsck: error deleting corrupted file " + path, e);
      internalError = true;
    }
  }

其实这2个命令的还是比较有用的.如果集群中存在大量损坏块数据的情况时,如果不及时进行清理,会出现大量客户端读写操作的失败,因为元数据虽然存在,但是真实数据已经损坏,读写操作必然会抛出异常.

fsck辅助显示参数


以上几个是fsck的主要参数,下面是一些辅助的次要一些的参数.

-locations/-racks

if (showLocations || showRacks) {
      StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder("[");
      for (int j = 0; j < locs.length; j++) {
        if (j > 0) { sb.append(", "); }
        if (showRacks)
          sb.append(NodeBase.getPath(locs[j]));
        else
          sb.append(locs[j]);
      }
      sb.append(&#39;]&#39;);
      report.append(" " + sb.toString());
    }

-storagepolicies

        if (this.showStoragePolcies) {
      storageTypeSummary = new StoragePolicySummary(
          namenode.getNamesystem().getBlockManager().getStoragePolicies());
    }

    ...

    if (this.showStoragePolcies) {
      out.print(storageTypeSummary.toString());
    }

-includeSnapshots
此参数会获取到namenode快照中的目录信息

      if (snapshottableDirs != null) {
    SnapshottableDirectoryStatus[] snapshotDirs = namenode.getRpcServer()
        .getSnapshottableDirListing();
    if (snapshotDirs != null) {
      for (SnapshottableDirectoryStatus dir : snapshotDirs) {
        snapshottableDirs.add(dir.getFullPath().toString());
      }
    }
  }

在这些参数执行期间,会伴随着输出结果的直接输出,所以你会看到路线的信息被展示范,输出的最末端,会给出总结报告,如下所示

 Total size:    88.13 KB
 Total dirs:    14
 Total files:   20
 Total symlinks:        0
 Total blocks (validated):  20 (avg. block size 4512 B)
  ********************************
  UNDER MIN REPL&#39;D BLOCKS:  20 (100.0 %)
  dfs.namenode.replication.min: 1
  CORRUPT FILES:    20
  MISSING BLOCKS:   20
  MISSING SIZE:     88.13 KB
  CORRUPT BLOCKS:   20
  ********************************
 Minimally replicated blocks:   0 (0.0 %)
 Over-replicated blocks:    0 (0.0 %)
 Under-replicated blocks:   0 (0.0 %)
 Mis-replicated blocks:     0 (0.0 %)
 Default replication factor:    0
 Average block replication: 0.0
 Corrupt blocks:        20
 Missing replicas:      0
 Number of data-nodes:      0
 Number of racks:       0
FSCK ended at Tue Mar 29 11:10:33 CST 2016 in 10 milliseconds


The filesystem under path &#39;/&#39; is CORRUPT

OK,NamenodeFsck的处理过程和参数控制就是如上所述,方法集中在fsck和check2个方法内,其间根据所选参数进行选择性中间结果输出,下面是一张简图
这里写图片描述
希望本文能给大家对HDFS的fsck命令相关的理解与使用带来帮助.

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