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HTML5的结构和语义——结构(二)

2012-01-10

由于缺少结构,即使是形式良好的HTML 页面也比较难以处理。必须分析标题的级别,才能看出各个部分的划分方式。边栏、页脚、页眉、导航条、主内容区和各篇文章都由通用的div 元素来表示。HTML 5 添加了一些新...

由于缺少结构,即使是形式良好的HTML 页面也比较难以处理。必须分析标题的级别,才能看出各个部分的划分方式。边栏、页脚、页眉、导航条、主内容区和各篇文章都由通用的div 元素来表示。HTML 5 添加了一些新元素,专门用来标识这些常见的结构:

 ·section:这可以是书中的一章或一节,实际上可以是在HTML 4 中有自己的标题的任何东西
 ·header:页面上显示的页眉;与head 元素不一样
 ·footer:页脚;可以显示电子邮件中的签名
 ·nav:指向其他页面的一组链接
 ·article:blog、杂志、文章汇编等中的一篇文章

  我们来考虑一个典型的blog 主页,它的顶部有页眉,底部有页脚,还有几篇文章、一个导航区和一个边栏,见代码1 典型的blog 页面

以下是代码片段:[www.xlnv.net]
<html>
<head>
<title>Mokka mit Schlag </title>
</head>
<body>
<div id="page">
<div id="header">
<h1><a href="http://www.xlnv.net">Mokka mit Schlag</a></h1>
</div>
<div id="container">
<div id="center" class="column">
<div class="post" id="post-1000572">
<h2><a href=
"/blog/birding/2007/04/23/spring-comes-and-goes-in-sussex-county/">
Spring Comes (and Goes) in Sussex County</a></h2>

<div class="entry">
<p>Yesterday I joined the Brooklyn Bird Club for our
annual trip to Western New Jersey, specifically Hyper
Humus, a relatively recently discovered hot spot. It
started out as a nice winter morning when we arrived
at the site at 7:30 A.M., progressed to Spring around
10:00 A.M., and reached early summer by 10:15. </p>
</div>
</div>


<div class="post" id="post-1000571">
<h2><a href=
"/blog/birding/2007/04/23/but-does-it-count-for-your-life-list/">
But does it count for your life list?</a></h2>

<div class="entry">
<p>Seems you can now go <a
href="http://www.wired.com/science/discoveries/news/
2007/04/cone_sf">bird watching via the Internet</a>. I
haven&#39;t been able to test it out yet (20 user
limit apparently) but this is certainly cool.
Personally, I can&#39;t imagine it replacing
actually being out in the field by any small amount.
On the other hand, I&#39;ve always found it quite
sad to meet senior birders who are no longer able to
hold binoculars steady or get to the park. I can
imagine this might be of some interest to them. At
least one elderly birder did a big year on TV, after
he could no longer get out so much. This certainly
tops that.</p>
</div>
</div>

</div>

<div class="navigation">
<div class="alignleft">
<a href="/blog/page/2/">&laquo; Previous Entries</a>
</div>
<div class="alignright"></div>
</div>
</div>

<div id="right" class="column">
<ul id="sidebar">
<li><h2>Info</h2>
<ul>
<li><a href="/blog/comment-policy/">Comment Policy</a></li>
<li><a href="/blog/todo-list/">Todo List</a></li>
</ul></li>
<li><h2>Archives</h2>
<ul>
<li><a href=&#39;/blog/2007/04/&#39;>April 2007</a></li>
<li><a href=&#39;/blog/2007/03/&#39;>March 2007</a></li>
<li><a href=&#39;/blog/2007/02/&#39;>February 2007</a></li>
<li><a href=&#39;/blog/2007/01/&#39;>January 2007</a></li>
</ul>
</li>
</ul>
</div>
<div id="footer">
<p>Copyright 2007 Elliotte Rusty Harold</p>
</div>
</div>

</body>
</html>

  即使有正确的缩进,这些嵌套的div 仍然让人觉得非常混乱。在HTML 5 中,可以将这些元素替换为语义性的元素,见代码2 用HTML5编写的典型blog页面

以下是代码片段:[www.xlnv.net]
<html>
<head>
<title>Mokka mit Schlag </title>
</head>
<body>
<header>
<h1><a href="http://www.elharo.com/blog">Mokka mit Schlag</a></h1>
</header>
<section>
<article>
<h2><a href=
"/blog/birding/2007/04/23/spring-comes-and-goes-in-sussex-county/">
Spring Comes (and Goes) in Sussex County</a></h2>

<p>Yesterday I joined the Brooklyn Bird Club for our
annual trip to Western New Jersey, specifically Hyper
Humus, a relatively recently discovered hot spot. It
started out as a nice winter morning when we arrived at
the site at 7:30 A.M., progressed to Spring around 10:00
A.M., and reached early summer by 10:15. </p>
</article>


<article>
<h2><a href=
"/blog/birding/2007/04/23/but-does-it-count-for-your-life-list/">
But does it count for your life list?</a></h2>

<p>Seems you can now go <a
href="http://www.wired.com/science/discoveries/news/
2007/04/cone_sf">bird watching via the Internet</a>. I
haven&#39;t been able to test it out yet (20 user
limit apparently) but this is certainly cool.
Personally, I can&#39;t imagine it replacing
actually being out in the field by any small amount.
On the other hand, I&#39;ve always found it quite
sad to meet senior birders who are no longer able to
hold binoculars steady or get to the park. I can
imagine this might be of some interest to them. At
least one elderly birder did a big year on TV, after
he could no longer get out so much. This certainly
tops that.</p>
</article>
<nav>
<a href="/blog/page/2/">&laquo; Previous Entries</a>
</nav>
</section>

<nav>
<ul>
<li><h2>Info</h2>
<ul>
<li><a href="/blog/comment-policy/">Comment Policy</a></li>
<li><a href="/blog/todo-list/">Todo List</a></li>
</ul></li>
<li><h2>Archives</h2>
<ul>
<li><a href=&#39;/blog/2007/04/&#39;>April 2007</a></li>
<li><a href=&#39;/blog/2007/03/&#39;>March 2007</a></li>
<li><a href=&#39;/blog/2007/02/&#39;>February 2007</a></li>
<li><a href=&#39;/blog/2007/01/&#39;>January 2007</a></li>
</ul>
</li>
</ul>
</nav>
<footer>
<p>Copyright 2007 Elliotte Rusty Harold</p>
</footer>

</body>
</html>
  现在不再需要div 了。不再需要自己设置class 属性,从标准的元素名就可以推断出各个部分的意义。这对于音频浏览器、手机浏览器和其他非标准浏览器尤其重要。
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